What is Osteoporosis?

 Rebecca Tilby, Registered Manager at Katherine Harriet Ltd looks at Osteoporosis. 

What is Osteoporosis? 

Osteoporosis is a health condition that weakens bones, making them fragile and more likely to break. It develops slowly over several years and is often only diagnosed when a fall or sudden impact causes a bone to break (fracture). 

The most common injuries in people with osteoporosis are: 

  • broken wrist 
  • broken hip (hip fracture) 
  • broken spinal bones (vertebrae) 

However, breaks can also happen in other bones, such as in the arm or pelvis. Sometimes a cough or sneeze can cause a broken rib or the partial collapse of one of the bones of the spine. 

Osteoporosis is not usually painful until a bone is broken, but broken bones in the spine are a common cause of long-term pain. 

Although a broken bone is often the first sign of osteoporosis, some older people develop the characteristic stooped (bent forward) posture. It happens when the bones in the spine have broken, making it difficult to support the weight of the body. 

Osteoporosis can be treated with bone-strengthening medicines. 

Causes of osteoporosis 

Losing bone is a normal part of ageing, but some people lose bone much faster than normal. This can lead to osteoporosis and an increased risk of broken bones. 

Women also lose bone rapidly in the first few years after the menopause. Women are more at risk of osteoporosis than men, particularly if the menopause begins early (before the age of 45) or they’ve had their ovaries removed. 

However, osteoporosis can also affect men, younger women and children. 

Many other factors can also increase the risk of developing osteoporosis, including: 

  • taking high-dose steroid tablets for more than 3 months 
  • other medical conditions – such as inflammatory conditions, hormone-related conditions, or malabsorption problems 
  • a family history of osteoporosis – particularly a hip fracture in a parent 
  • long-term use of certain medicines that can affect bone strength or hormone levels, such as anti-oestrogen tablets that many women take after breast cancer 
  • having or having had an eating disorder such as anorexia or bulimia 
  • having a low body mass index (BMI) 
  • not exercising regularly 
  • heavy drinking and smoking 

Diagnosing osteoporosis and osteopenia 

Bone density scan (DEXA scan) 

You may be referred for a bone density scan to measure your bone strength. It’s a short, painless procedure that takes 10 to 20 minutes, depending on the part of the body being scanned. 

Your bone density can be compared to that of a healthy young adult. 

The difference is calculated as a standard deviation (SD) and is called a T score. 

Standard deviation is a measure of variability based on an average or expected value. A T score of: 

  • above -1 SD is normal 
  • between -1 and -2.5 SD shows bone loss and is defined as osteopenia 
  • below -2.5 shows bone loss and is defined as osteoporosis 
  • Treating osteoporosis 
  • Treatment for osteoporosis is based on treating and preventing broken bones and taking medicine to strengthen your bones. 

The decision about whether you need treatment depends on your risk of breaking a bone in the future. This will be based on a number of factors such as your age, sex, and the results of your bone density scan. 

If you need treatment, your doctor can suggest the safest and most effective treatment plan for you. 

Preventing osteoporosis 

If you’re at risk of developing osteoporosis, you should take steps to help keep your bones healthy. This may include: 

  • Take regular exercise to keep your bones as strong as possible 
  • healthy eating – including foods rich in calcium and vitamin D 
  • taking a daily supplement containing 10 micrograms of vitamin D 
  • making lifestyle changes – such as giving up smoking and reducing your alcohol consumption 

Living with osteoporosis 

If you’re diagnosed with osteoporosis, there are steps you can take to reduce your chances of a fall, such as removing hazards from your home and having regular sight tests and hearing tests. 

To help you recover from a fracture, you can try using: 

  • painkillers 
  • hot and cold treatments, such as warm baths and cold packs 
  • relaxation techniques and other ways to reduce pain 
  • Speak to your GP or nurse if you’re worried about living with a long-term condition. They may be able to answer any questions you have. 

02.10.2023 – Rebecca Tilby / Registered Manager 

Managers Blog